Time-Temperature-Superposition Kinetics, Dr. Bruce Prime


The Golden Gate Polymer Forum
September 19 Dinner Lecture

"Time-Temperature-Superposition Kinetics"

Bruce Prime
IBM, retired / consultant


The principle of time-temperature superposition was
first introduced more than 45 years ago to characterize
and predict viscoelastic and rheological behavior of
materials. Behavior over several decades of time can
be described by master curves of properties such as
modulus, viscosity and creep compliance vs. reduced time.
This principle was first applied to the cure kinetics of
thermosetting polymers over 25 years ago and has been
effective in analyzing and predicting cure in terms of
master curves of conversion and Tg vs. reduced time. It
has also proved effective in the characterization and
control of real cure processes that are represented by
non-isothermal time/temperature profiles. Characterization
of aging and degradation by TTS kinetics can give
lifetime projections.

The underlying principle in both cases is the same,
that the process is not altered by changes in temperature
but only speeded up or slowed down by increasing or
decreasing temperature, respectively. In the case of
TTS kinetics the shift factor is an integrated form
of the Arrhenius equation and the superposition of
conversion-time curves at a series of temperatures
yields both the master curve and the activation energy
for cure. By appropriate choice of the reference
temperature master curves can project storage life and
work life as well as cure process times. For cure
temperatures below Tg,inf master curves clearly show the
shift from chemical to diffusion control which usually
accompanies vitrification. A process analogous to
integrating the time/temperature profile yields
parameters such as equivalent isothermal time (EIT),
equivalent property time (EPT), accumulated equivalent
curing time (AECT) and equivalent cycle time (ECT).
A review of the general principles will be followed
by a detailed examination of time-temperature
superposition applied to Arrhenius kinetic processes.

Biographical Sketch

Bruce Prime is a consultant in polymeric materials
and thermal characterization and Affiliate Professor
of Chemical Engineering at the University of Washington.
He received a BS in chemistry from Loyola-Marymount
University and a Ph.D. in chemistry from Rensselaer
Polytechnic Institute with Professor Bernhard Wunderlich.
He recently retired as a Senior Scientist from the IBM
Storage Division Materials Laboratory in San Jose, CA.
The focus of his 30 year IBM career was the development
of polymeric materials applications for printer and
information storage technologies. His work included
characterization, design and control of materials and
their processes. He has always utilized thermal analysis
in his work where areas of concentration have included
thermosetting materials, process kinetics and the coupling
of analytical techniques. Dr. Prime authored the chapter on
"Thermosets" in Thermal Characterization of Polymeric
Materials (Edith Turi, ed., Academic Press, 1981 and 1997).
He is a Fellow both of NATAS and of SPE and was the
recipient of the 1989 Mettler Award in Thermal Analysis.


PRACTICAL DETAILS for Sept. 19 meeting:

Cost: $30 regular
$15 for unemployed/retired/students
Free for just the talk at 8 PM
(but please let us know for headcount)

Social Hour: 6:00 PM
Dinner: 7:00 PM
Talk: 8:00 PM

Dinner Choices (pick one):
Vegetarian Napoleon
Chicken Florentine
Grilled Salmon

Location: Michael's at Shoreline, Mountain View


- Make reservations by NOON, Monday Sept. 17.

- Please provide contact information (email or phone),
name & affiliation, and your DINNER CHOICE. If
attending for the talk only, please let us know so
you don't get included in the dinner headcount.

- You should receive confirmation of your registration;
if not, please try again.

- Register through the web page ( if
it is working, or else by contacting

Bruce Prime

- We must ask you to be liable for the cost of
your dinner if you register and do not attend;
cancellations may be made up to the registration


From 101 in Mountain View, take the Shoreline Boulevard
Exit, turning toward the bay. Drive past the Shoreline
Amphitheater and go straight ahead, entering into
Shoreline Park. After a mile or so inside the park,
a sign for Michael's will direct you to turn left into
the parking lot for Michael's.
Address: 2960 N Shoreline Blvd.
Restaurant phone: 650-962-1014
(do not call restaurant for reservations)


Mark your calendar for


Oct. 22
Mountain View
all day event.

Confirmed Speakers:

Prof. Kam Leong, Dept. of Biomedical
Engineering, Johns Hopkins Univ. --
"Polymers in Drug and Gene Delivery"

Prof. Allan Hoffman, Dept. of Bioengineering,
Univ. of Washington, Seattle -- "Use of
pH-sensitive Polymers in Drug Delivery"

Dr. Guohua Chen, ALZA Corporation --
"Controlled Release from Depot and Osmotically
Driven Implants"

Dr. Jorge Heller, AP Pharma -- "Controlled
Release from Bioerodible Implants"

Dr. Rom Eliaz, ALZA Corporation -- "Tissue
Engineering via Gene Gelivery"

Dr. S. Gunasekaran, President, ENCOLL
Corp. -- "Phosphorylation of Collagen for
Gene Delivery and Tissue Regeneration"

Registration for the Fall Symposium will be
available in late September. Further details
to be announced. For interim questions,
please contact Lothar Kleiner at, 650-564-5632.

NOVEMBER GGPF Dinner Lecture:

Nov. 14, Menlo Park
Prof. Shaw Ling Hsu, Univ. of Massachusetts,
Amherst, will speak on
"New Developments in Crystallization Behavior
of Strongly Interacting Chains"


Other events of possible interest to the
GGPF audience:


Sept. 2-7, San Francisco
Electrochemical Society meeting
(sessions on fullerenes, organic optoelectronic devices,
microelectronics topics, batteries, etc, plus short courses
on topics that include batteries, fuel cells, sensors, and
chemical mechancial polishing.)

Sept. 11, South San Francisco
BAMS (Bay Area Mass Spectroscopy society)
Corporate Sponsor Night

Sept. 24, Fremont
SPE-sponsored NUMMI Plant Tour

Sept. 26, Sunnyvale
IEEE/CPMT afternoon short course:
"Undertanding Imaging and Analysis of Thin
Films and Contamination"


Oct. 3-5, Monterey
Photomask 2001 conference, sponsored by SPIE

Oct. 7-10, Sonoma
ACS POLY Division Workshop:
Polyolefins III

Oct. 18, ACS dinner lecture
Prof. Richard Zare,
"The Fizzics of Beer Bubbles"
(included because we know all of you
out there are fluid mechanics at heart ...)

Oct. 21-25, Monterey
Fifth International Conference on Miniaturized
Chemical and Biochemical Analysis Systems,
Sponsored by the California Separation Science Society

Oct. 21-25, San Francisco
SPIE Conference: Micromachining and Microfabrication
Includes a short course on packaging of optical MEMS
/ MOEMS devices, and other short courses.

Oct. 21, San Francisco
Magnetic Media Symposium
Oct. 22-24, San Francisco
Joint Tribology Conference
(Society of Tribologists & Lubrication Engineers
plus the ASME Tribology Division)

Oct. 24, San Jose
PTI Short Course:
Introduction to Microcontamination Control.

Oct. 26-27, San Francisco
AVS short course "Quantitative Surface Analysis"
Oct. 29 - Nov. 2, San Francisco
AVS 48th International Symposium, 15th
International Vacuum Congress and 11th
International Congress on Solid Surfaces
(session topics on biomaterials, applied surface analysis,
dielectric materials, MEMS, nanostructures & nanotubes, etc.)


Nov. 4-9, Reno, Nevada
Joint Meeting of The Electrophoresis Society
and the American Institute of Chemical Engineers

Nov. 14-17, Sonoma
ACS POLY Division Workshop:
Organic/Inorganic Hybrid Materials - 2001

Nov. 14, location tbd
ASM dinner meeting: "Electronic Packaging"


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