NATAS/GGPF Spring Short Courses, March 3 & 4


Register For Short Course Only, March 3 & 4

General Information

The first day is fundamentals of thermal analysis and the second day splits into separate sessions on Characterization of Polymers by Thermal Analysis & Pharmaceutical Applications of Thermal Analysis (see program and speaker abstracts & biographies below).

$495 for registration prior to February 10.

For information on student and retired/unemployed rates or for other inquiries contact Bruce Prime at

This event will take place at Michael's at Shoreline Park 2960 N. Shoreline Blvd., Mountain View, CA. Michael's is a short distance from Hwy 101, about 12 miles north of the San Jose airport and 30 miles south of the San Francisco airport. From 101 in Mountain View, take the Shoreline Boulevard. Exit, turning toward the bay. Drive past the Shoreline Amphitheater and go straight ahead, entering into Shoreline Park. After a mile or so inside the park, a sign for Michael's will direct you to turn left into the parking lot. Restaurant phone: 650-962-1014 (do not call restaurant for registration).

A block of rooms has been reserved for this event at the Sheraton Sunnyvale Hotel, 1100 North Mathilda Ave, Sunnyvale, Ca. The rate is $159 weekday/$79 weekend, single or double. Locally call 408/745-6000 or in the US and Canada call direct 1-800/566-6449 and mention the GGPF March event. The Sheraton is just off Hwy 101 about 6 miles north of the San Jose Airport, 6 miles south of Shoreline and 36 miles south of the San Francisco airport. The Sheraton can provide transportation to/from the San Jose airport and to/from the programs at Michaels's at Shoreline.

Program for NATAS/GGPF Spring 2003 Short Courses
March 3 and 4

Wei-Ping Pan, Western Kentucky University
Short Course Chair

Monday March 3

8:30 am - 12:00 noon
How to Optimize DSC and TGA Experimental Conditions and Interpret Results with Confidence, Len Thomas, TA Instruments

1:00 pm - 4:30 pm
Modulated Temperature DSC (MTDSC): Basic Theory, Operation, Applications and Comparison to Traditional DSC, Mike Reading, Loughborough University


Tuesday March 4

Session A:
Characterization of Polymers by Thermal Analysis

8:30 am - 10:00 am
Characterizing Thermoplastic Polymers for Industrial Applications, Richard Chartoff, University of Arizona.

10:30 am - 12:00 noon
Thermal Analysis in Thermoset Characterization, Bruce Prime, IBM (Retired / Consultant)

1:00 pm - 2:30 pm
Rheology of Polymers, Jeffrey Gotro, Ablestik Laboratories

3:00 pm - 4:30 pm
Characterization of Polymeric Materials by Thermal Analysis, Spectroscopy and Microscopic Techniques, Wei-Ping Pan, Western Kentucky University

Session B
Pharmaceutical Applications of Thermal Analysis

8:30 am - 10:00 am
Differential Scanning Calorimetry and the Characterization of Amorphous Pharmaceutical Systems, Michael Pikal, University of Connecticut

10:30 am - 12:00 noon
Thermoanalytical Characterization of Pharmaceutical Materials: Small Molecule Applications Nancy Redman-Furey, Procter & Gamble Pharmaceuticals

1:00 pm - 2:30 pm
Kinetics and Thermodynamics: Practical Applications of Isothermal Heat Conduction Microcalorimetry Anthony Beezer, University of Greenwich

3:00 pm - 4:30 pm
The Use of Isothermal Microcalorimetry and Solution Calorimetryin the Assessment of Stability, Compatibility, Amorphicity and Polymorphism in Pharmaceutical Systems, Mark Phipps, Thermometric, Ltd.

4:30 pm - 6:00 pm
Reception and Instrument Display


Short Course Abstracts & Speaker Biographies

First Day

How to Optimize DSC and TGA and Experimental Conditions and Interpret Results with Confidence

[Monday, March 3, 2003, 8:30am—12:00noon]

The accuracy, precision and overall quality of thermal analysis data depends on the ability of the operator to optimize instrument performance and select appropriate conditions for the experiment. Because of the versatility of modern DSC, TGA and TMA instrumentation and the complexity of the materials analyzed, it is often difficult for new users to obtain results, which are optimized for ease of interpretation. This presentation/discussion is designed to help new or infrequent users obtain the best results possible from their thermal analysis instrumentation. Topics will include calibration, optimization of the instrument baseline, sample preparation, selection of experimental conditions, elimination of sources of error and interpretation of results. The most common applications of the techniques will be illustrated using a wide variety of materials.
[Speaker: Mr. Leonard C. Thomas, TA Instruments]

Modulated Temperature DSC (MTDSC); Basic Theory, Operation, Applications
and Comparison to Traditional DSC

[Monday, March 3, 2003, 1:00pm—4:30pm]

Modulated Temperature DSC is a variant of conventional DSC in which the conventional linear heating program has a modulation superimposed upon it. The modulation is typically sinusoidal but can be a combination of sine waves (which, in certain combinations, will result in a square wave). This modulation in heating rate results in a corresponding modulation in heat flow. The response of the sample can then be considered to be made up of two components, the response to the underlying linear heating rate and the response to the modulation. These two components can be separated by use of an averaging procedure combined with a Fourier transform. This results in three signals, the underlying or average response that is equivalent to a conventional DSC at the same underlying heating rate, the amplitude of the modulation and the phase lag. The phase lag can be used to separate the response to the modulation into an in and out of phase component if desired.
The use of modulation in this way brings the ability to separate reversing (heat capacity except in melting) and non-reversing (kinetic) phenomena and this brings a number of advantages for studying curing systems, blends and crystalline polymers. Briefly:
· In curing samples the progress of the cure reaction can be separated from the progress of vitrification. Under some circumstances, phase separation induced by the reaction can be detected.
· When studying amorphous blends, the reversing signal has a much higher signal to noise and greater resolution that conventional DSC to the glass transition. The fact that this signal is approximately independent of thermal history also simplifies the detection and quantification of different phases.
· For semi-crystalline polymers, initial crystallinity can be determined with greater certainty and reversible melting can be detected.
In summary, MTDSC offers a number of advantages over conventional DSC for studying curing systems, blends and semi-crystalline polymers. This technique is a powerful new tool for a more complete characterization of polymer systems by calorimetry.
[Speaker: Mike Reading, IPTME, Loughborough University, Loughborough LE11 3TU, UK]

Second Day

Session A: Characterization of Polymers by Thermal Analysis

Characterizing Thermoplastic Polymers for Industrial Applications

[Tuesday, March 4, 2003, 8:30am—10:00am]
Thermal analysis (TA) methods can be used to obtain valuable information relevant to the application, processing, and quality control of thermoplastic polymers. In this presentation we will consider how TA methods can help to develop useful information relating to these areas for both amorphous and crystalline thermoplastics. We will discuss how inherent polymer characteristics (such as chemical structure and molecular weight) affect the glass transition and crystalline melting temperature range. Also we will delve into the effects of different thermal and mechanical histories on polymer properties and how this relates to applications. It will be shown that different thermal analysis instruments give complementary information and the data from each should be used together in order to most effectively solve specific industrial problems.
[Speaker: Richard Chartoff, University of Arizona]

Thermal Analysis in Thermoset Characterization

[Tuesday, March 4, 2003, 10:30am—12:00noon]

The processing of monomers or oligomers into crosslinked, three-dimensional networks by the end-user distinguishes thermosets from other polymeric materials. Cure is usually accomplished by heating but for some systems it may be initiated by exposure to light. Two distinct phenomena, gelation and vitrification, play major roles in the processing and cure of thermosets. Gelation is the irreversible transformation of a liquid to a crosslinked elastic gel of infinite molecular weight and defines the upper limit of the processing window. Vitrification is a reversible transition to the glassy state due to reaction. It occurs when the increasing Tg of the reacting system becomes equal to the cure temperature, Tcure. To avoid vitrification and achieve full cure it is necessary for the cure temperature to be close to Tg¥, the glass transition of the fully cured network. Vitrification will greatly reduce the cure reaction rate and forms the basis for pre-mixed and frozen adhesives, powder coatings and storage of B-staged composites.
The theme of this lecture will be practical applications based on fundamental principles. Application of dynamic mechanical techniques will be described with emphasis on experimental techniques and the measurement of cure, properties and aging of thermosets. A variety of experimental techniques will be described, including various systems to support uncured liquid systems. The role of frequency will be described in distinguishing frequency-dependent transitions such as Tg or vitrification from frequency-independent phenomena such as gelation. Time-temperature superposition methodologies for analyzing both viscoelastic data, such as modulus and compliance, and kinetic data, such as cure and aging, will be addressed. The importance of the glass transition-conversion relationship in characterizing cure and in the measurement of degree of cure will be discussed.
[Speaker: Bruce Prime, IBM (Retired) / Consultant]

Rheology of Polymers

[Tuesday, March 4, 2003, 1:00pm—2:30pm]

This presentation will cover experimental methods used to characterize the rheological properties of thermoplastic and thermosetting polymers. For thermoplastic polymers, the basic material properties of the zero shear viscosity, plateau modulus, and recoverable compliance will be discussed. The shear rate dependence of the viscosity will be presented. The role of molecular weight on the viscosity will also be discussed. The time and temperature dependence of the rheological properties will be covered. For thermosetting polymers, dynamic mechanical analysis using oscillatory parallel plate rheometry was used to measure the viscosity during isothermal and non-isothermal curing. Microdielectrometry performed simultaneously with parallel-plate rheological methods provided further insight into the physical changes that occur during curing. Examples will be presented highlighting the how the chemorheological properties impact the processing of thermoset polymers.
[Speaker: Jeffrey Gotro, Ablestik Laboratories]

Characterization of Polymeric Materials by Thermal Analysis, Spectroscopy, and Microscopic Techniques

[Tuesday, March 4, 2003, 3:00pm—4:30pm]

The hyphenated technologies, such as TG/FTIR/MS, TG/GC-MS, have been used for several decades. These techniques allow to evaluate the chemical pathway of the degradation reaction through identifying the composition of the decomposition products from materials examined. On the other hand, Micro-Thermal Analysis, the marriage of thermal analysis and microscopy introduced in later 90s, can be used to perform localized thermal analysis, visualizing the spatial distribution of phases, components, and contaminants. For the real life chemistry, it is impossible to solve a complicated problem using only one single technique. Therefore, the traditional thermal techniques have been coupled with other techniques, such as spectroscopy and microscopic techniques, to enhance the problem solving power.
This lecture will focus on thermal, spectroscopic, and microscopic analysis of very disparate samples. The samples discussed include the failure analysis of bumper using TGA/MDSC/XRD techniques, analysis of partially degraded rubber and corroded steel samples using Micro-TA technique, and examination of the non-oxidative thermal degradation chemistry of organically modified montmorillonites and their filled polystyrene-montmorillonite nanocomposites system.
[Speaker: Wei-Ping Pan, Western Kentucky University]

Session B: Pharmaceutical Applications of Thermal Analysis

Differential Scanning Calorimetry and the Characterization of Amorphous Pharmaceutical Systems

[Tuesday, March 4, 2003, 8:30am—10:00am]

Both freeze-drying and spray drying are common processes in the pharmaceutical industry which lead to systems which are, at least in part, amorphous solids or glasses. Even materials produced by crystallization may contain significant levels of amorphous phase contamination, particularly when the materials are subjected to high energy milling operations designed to reduce particle size. Relative to the crystalline state, the amorphous state has higher solubility, which is often an important advantage, but the amorphous state also has the disadvantage of being less stable with regard to changes in solid form (i.e., crystallization) and product degradation. Many pharmaceuticals cannot be crystallized (i.e., proteins), and stability is often marginal even in the dry state. Here, one may often increase dry state stability by use of "stabilizers", such as freeze drying a protein in a sucrose matrix. Effective stabilization demands both drug and stabilizer remain in the same glassy phase. Finally, characterization of the physical state of the solute phase(s) in a frozen system is critical to proper design of a freeze drying process. Thus, characterization of amorphous systems is often critical to both design of the process and the ultimate performance of the product. The glass transition temperature is perhaps the most important characteristic of an amorphous pharmaceutical system. The glass transition temperature of the solute phase in a frozen system, Tg', marks the upper temperature limit for freeze drying without damage to the product, and since primary drying time roughly doubles for each 5°C reduction in product temperature, knowledge of Tg' is critical to process design. Stability of an amorphous product normally decreases sharply when stored above the glass transition temperature, so determination of Tg and the effect of residual moisture on Tg is critical to formulation selection, specifications for residual moisture, and design of accelerated stability test protocols. While several methods have been used for determination of the glass transition temperature, DSC remains the "gold standard". Particularly for dry powders, Modulated DSC has a significant advantage over the older linear scan technique, or "Standard DSC". Often multiple thermal events, such as enthalpy recovery, crystallization, and decomposition, obscure the glass transition when using Standard DSC, but Modulated DSC normally allows clear separation of the irreversible events from the glass transition. Finally, calorimetry can be used in studi
s of stabilization mechanisms. It has been proposed that stability in glassy systems below Tg is related to glass fragility. An estimate of fragility can be made from the width of the glass transition region, using DSC data. Also, one may argue that stability is coupled (i.e., correlated) with the structural relaxation time. The structural relaxation time may be determined using either DSC enthalpy recovery data or a direct measure of the kinetics of enthalpy relaxation using isothermal calorimetry. These lectures will review the generalizations described above and will illustrate applications of DSC with specific examples.
[Speaker: Michael J. Pikal, School of Pharmacy, University of Connecticut]

Thermoanalytical Characterization of Pharmaceutical Materials: Small Molecule Applications

[Tuesday, March 4, 2003, 10:30am—12:00am]

Fundamental information can be efficiently gathered throughout all stages of drug development for small molecules via the use of differential scanning calorimetry and thermogravimetry. Upon identification of a drug candidate, thermal analysis plays a key role in identifying the solvation and polymorphic state of the material. In particular, rapid identification and understanding of a channel hydrate can prevent rework due to inappropriate drying or handling conditions. Thermal curves can also be used to predict the presence of additional available solid state forms and provide clues as to likely inter-conversions between forms. Because of this, both differential scanning calorimetry and thermogravimetry are indispensable tools for full polymorph and solvation state screening.
As drug needs increase so does the need for thermal hazard assessment of the synthetic process. Thermal analysis can quickly provide a preliminary assessment and indicate whether additional testing is necessary.
Purity determination by differential scanning calorimetry is a well-known pharmaceutical application and is recognized by the USP. Obtaining accurate values with this technique is dependent upon understanding the restrictions of the technique itself as well as the software being used to calculate the purity values.
Thermal fingerprinting has recently received attention as tool for preventing fraud, qualifying new vendors and/or processes and for troubleshooting. Successful use of this tool requires an informed interpretation of the thermal curve.
Examples and practical suggestions will be provided for implementation of each of the applications described above.
[Speaker: Nancy Redman-Furey, Procter & Gamble Pharmaceuticals]

Kinetics and Thermodynamics: Practical Applications of Isothermal Heat Conduction Microcalorimetry

[Tuesday, March 4, 2003, 1:00pm—2:30pm]

Recent developments in the analysis of microcalorimetric output data now mean that it is possible to determine directly values for the major thermodynamic (ÄH, ÄG, ÄS, K) and kinetic ( k, Ea) parameters.for complex reacting systems. The development of the equations will be outlined and examples of their application to pharmaceutically important systems will be presented. These examples will cover issues such as long term stability testing, compatibility testing, investigation of packaging properties and extension to the development of a photocalorimeter for investigation of light stability for the study of light mediated processes (photodynamic therapies, polymerisations etc).
Calorimetric studies of living systems commenced really with Lavoisier in 1780 investigating the metabolism of a guinea pig. Modern studies involving microbial and other cellular systems will be described. Particular attention will be given to applications of this area of microcalorimetry in bioassay, food authentication, antibiotic screening, soil systems, bioremediation etc. An outline of some enzyme based analytical systems will also be presented.
All industrial and applied activities in microcalorimetry, as in other technique based investigations require validation and traceability and so, finally, a test reaction system will be described which satisfies these requirements. The selected reaction, the imidazole catalysed hydrolysis of triacetin, has been the subject of International inter- and intra-laboratory testing. The results of this study will be presented
[Speaker: Anthony Beezer, University of Greenwich University]

The Use of Isothermal Microcalorimetry and Solution Calorimetry in the Assessment of Stability, Compatibility, Amorphicity and Polymorphism in Pharmaceutical Systems

[Tuesday, March 4, 2003, 3:00pm—4:30pm]

Isothermal microcalorimetry has been extensively used in recent years for the characterization of solids. The pharmaceutical and chemical industries, especially, have used this technique to great advantage to investigate a number of issues conventionally examined using other less direct methods. Isothermal microcalorimetry has found its niche through the high level of sensitivity and the versatility of the technique to perform a wide range of experiments for different applications.
It will be demonstrated how compatibility and stability of solids can be assessed using a simple methodology. Kinetic equations to quantify the reaction under study will also be discussed.
Quantitation of amorphicity is a further area where isothermal microcalorimetry has been used. Processing, for example micronisation, can alter the crystalline content of solid samples. Microcalorimetry has been used to quantitate the crystallinity of a sample to levels less than 0.1 percent amorphous content.
Microcalorimetry and solution calorimetryare excellent tools in the study of polymorphism. It will be shown how microcalorimetry can be used to study the conversion of a metastable polymorph to a stable polymorph. This can be performed at realistic temperatures unlike the more stressed technique of DSC. Solution calorimetry can be used for quantitation of the polymorphic content of a sample. In addition, it is also a very sensitive technique for use in polymorph identification and amorphicity determination.
[Speaker: Mark A. Phipps, Thermometric Ltd]


Leonard C. Thomas is Vice President of Applications Development at TA Instruments, Inc., New Castle, Delaware. Len joined the DuPont thermal analysis business in 1975 and has held positions in technical sales, market development, product development, sales, worldwide marketing and business management. Prior to 1975, he was a research chemist in the DuPont Photo Products Department and is a 1968 graduate of Temple University. Len has written numerous articles and lectured extensively on application of thermal analysis to materials characterization. His paper “Interpreting Unexpected Events and Transitions in DSC Results” has been reprinted twice in issues of NATAS Notes. Len has been an instructor in several CTAS and NATAS thermal analysis short courses.

Mike Reading has over 25 years experience of applying thermal methods to a wide variety of systems. 12 years have been spent in industry working for ICI the rest in academic institutions both in France and the UK. He is now head of the Advanced Thermal Methods Unit at the IPTME in Loughborough University UK. Winner of the Royal Society of Chemistry young scientist award and the NATAS-Mettler Prize, he is best known as the inventor of Modulated Temperature DSC and Micro-thermal analysis.

Richard Chartoff is Research Professor of Materials Science Engineering at the University of Arizona (UA) and also retains the title of “Distinguished Polymer Engineer” in the University of Dayton Center for Basic and Applied Polymer Research, where he worked for many years before moving to UA. He now teaches graduate courses in polymer science and engineering and supervises laboratory activities in polymers and thermal analysis at UA. Dr. Chartoff is well known for his work in thermal analysis and rheology. He is the author of Chapter 3 on “Thermoplastics” in the 2nd Edition of the definitive text “Thermal Characterization of Polymeric Materials”, Edith Turi, ed., published by Academic Press. In his past affiliation with UD he was a founder of the University of Dayton Rapid Prototype Development Laboratory, which is engaged in various R&D programs associated with futuristic methods for materials processing in automated layered manufacturing systems. UD is one of the only Universities carrying out comprehensive R&D programs in this new materials processing technology. The program at UD in this area is internationally recognized. In addition Dr. Chartoff was Principal Investigator for UD’s new Laboratory for Electron Beam Curing of Composites. He continues working with UD in these areas.
Dr. Chartoff has numerous publications and patents and has served as a consultant for many American and European industrial organizations. He has been recognized as a research fellow by the Royal Norwegian Council for Scientific and Industrial Research and has been elected as a Fellow of the North American Thermal Analysis Society (NATAS). His activities in technical societies include service on the executive board of NATAS and the Dayton Section of the American Chemical Society as well as President of the Miami Valley Section of the Society of Plastics Engineers and the executive board of the SPE Plastics Analysis Division. His current work with the NATAS executive board is as Assistant Conference Director for the 2003 NATAS Conference in Albuquerque.

Bruce Prime is a consultant to industry and government and an Affiliate Professor of Chemical Engineering at the University of Washington. He has over 30 years experience developing polymeric materials and their processes. A focus of his work is the cure and properties of crosslinked polymer systems such as coatings, adhesives and electronic materials. His work is documented in over 50 publications and in the chapter on Thermosets in Thermal Characterization of Polymeric Materials (E. A. Turi, ed., Academic Press, 1981 and 1997). Bruce has a B.S. in chemistry from Loyola Marymount University and a Ph.D. in chemistry from Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute with Bernhard Wunderlich. He spent 30 years at IBM where he developed polymer systems for printer and information storage technologies and he recently retired as a Senior Scientist from the IBM Materials Laboratory in San Jose, CA. Bruce is a fellow of SPE and NATAS and was the 1989 recipient of the international Mettler Award in Thermal Analysis. [].

Jeffrey Gotro is currently the Director of Research & Development for Ablestik Laboratories in Rancho Dominguez, CA . Ablestik is the leading provider of advanced polymers for semiconductor and electronic packaging applications. Jeff has 20 years experience in R&D, manufacturing, and application of advanced polymers for electronic applications. He has held technology leadership positions at IBM, AlliedSignal, and Honeywell. Jeff received a B.S in Mechanical Engineering and Materials Science from Marquette University in 1977 and a Ph.D. in Materials Science from Northwestern University in 1982.

Wei-Ping Pan is a Professor, Department of Chemistry and Materials Characterization Center, at Western Kentucky University. He was awarded Western Kentucky University's Ward Sumpter Professorship, 1992-present. Dr Pan has 20 years of experience in materials characterization and laboratory analysis and testing. He is project director for 25 projects funded by various government agencies and companies, including NASA, DoD, DoE, NSF, EPRI, ICCI, TVA, East Kentucky Power Cooperation, and Cinergy Corporation. Dr. Pan is an international invited lecturer on many topics related to coal combustion, nanocomposite materials, mercury emissions, thermal analysis as well as the technology of polymers, pharmaceuticals, and fuels. He is a member and Fellow of NATAS, and a past-President of NATAS.

Michael Pikal is currently Professor of Pharmaceutics at the University of Connecticut. Prior to September, 1996 he was a Senior Research Scientist with the Lilly Research Laboratories and an Adjunct Professor of Pharmaceutics at the University of Michigan and at the University of Minnesota. He received his Ph.D. in physical chemistry (1966) from Iowa State University and was a Postdoctoral Research Fellow with the Lawrence Livermore Laboratory(1966-1967 His current research activities include the solid state chemistry of pharmaceuticals, particularly the stability of amorphous materials, characterization of solids by calorimetry, and the science and technology of freeze drying with a focus on optimization of formulation and process for labile proteins. Dr. Pikal is a member of the ACS, AAPS, and the PDA. He received the Eli Lilly & Co."Presidents Award" in 1996. Dr. Pikal is a Fellow of the AAPS, and was the 2001 recipient of the AAPS Research Achievement Award in Pharmaceutical Technology.

Nancy Redman-Furey is currently working for Procter & Gamble Pharmaceuticals as a Principal Scientist. She received her PhD from the Pennsylvania State University under the direction of Dr. Joseph Jordan, studying the heat of enzymatic phosphorylation reactions via isoperibol calorimetry. She has spent the last 20 years as head of the Thermal Analysis Laboratory for P&GP. In this capacity she is responsible for characterizing pharmaceutical materials ranging from new chemical entity to marketed drug, incoming raw materials to proposed new excipients, synthetic intermediates to trial formulations as well as various packaging materials. Data generated by the Thermal Analysis Laboratory is used: to release drug substance and drug product, as characterization information to file in worldwide regulatory submissions, provide evidence for process and/or raw material equivalency, and to troubleshoot manufacturing and/or formulations issues. For the past 3 years she has also led an interdisciplinary Solid State Chemistry Group whose charter is to aid drug development efforts in the choice and design of appropriate salt and solid state forms.

Anthony E.Beezer is Professor of Biophysical Chemistry at Medway Sciences, University of Greenwich, UK. He graduated from the university of Keele ,UK where he also obtained his PhD and DSc degrees. He has been Professor of Biophysical Chemistry and Head of Department in the Universities of London and Kent. Awards include: 1994 Swiss Society for Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry “Applied Thermodynamics Award”; 1997 (US) Calorimetry Conference, J.J.Christensen Award for “Innovation in Calorimetry”; 1999 the Lavoisier Medal of the International Society for Biological Calorimetry. Published >200 papers and 2 books in the area of biological calorimetry, pharmaceutical calorimetry and, particularly, the determination of both kinetic and thermodynamic parameters characterising reaction systems from direct microcalorimetric data.

Mark A. Phipps received his BSc and PhD from The University of Kent, UK in chemistry and pharmaceutical chemistry respectively. He has held posts in achademia and industry, in the UK and US, investigating the role of thermal analysis and specifically isothermal microcalorimetry to pharmaceutical problems. Mark is a chartered chemist with the Royal Society of Chemistry and is a member of the RSC Thermal Methods Group Committee. Mark currently holds two positions within Thermometric as General Manager of the UK distribution company and as an International Product Manager for the Swedish parent company.

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